System of Ruling

Economic Development, Advancements and Innovations

Demokratizatsiya (Democratization)

  • Leading up to and after the fall of the soviet union, policies passed by Gorbachev being Glasnost (political restructuring), Perestroika (economic restructuring) and Demokratizatsiya (democratisation) were pivotal in gearing communist Russia in a capitalist direction to motivate the then failing stagnant economy.

Current Political System

  • Russia’s current political framework is that of a sovereign democratic federation
  • The president of Russia has the power to appoint cabinet ministers, key judges and the prime minister
  • The Russian president is the commander in chief and can announce martial law or an emergency situation

The current Russian President, Vladimir Putin

  • In 1993, after Boris Yeltsin had dissolved the cabinet of Russian parliament, 3 fifths of Russian voters ratified a new constitution proposed by Yeltsin, under which new cabinet members were elected

Federal Assembly

  • The Russian federal assembly is comprised of two tiers;

Federal council State Duma

An upper house consisting of representatives elected from each of Russia's administrative divisions

A lower house of 450 popularly elected representatives. The president’s nominee for chairman of state government is only approved through this house.

  • If the Duma passes rejects a nominee 3 times or passes a vote of no twice in three months, then the president has the power to dismiss the lower house, holding elections instead
  • All legislation must pass the Duma before proceeding to the upper house.
  • A presidential veto of a bill can be overridden with ⅔ majority vote
  • In altering a bill/reform to include presidential reservations, it is either overridden or passed with a majority vote
  • With two thirds majority and the vote of the Russian Constitutional Court, the two tiers (legislature) may evict the president from office for treason or other grievous crimes
  • The federation council must have all presidential appointments approved by the highest judicial bodies of Russian justice system

Judicial System

The system of judiciaries consists of 4 tiers; (in order of highest to lowest)

  • the Supreme Court of Russia
    • The highest court of appeals, often dealing with cases of state interest, and supervises inferior courts of rulings
    • Split into 5 “general chambers”, each dealing with more specific cases
      • civil (коллегии по гражданским);
      • criminal (коллегии по уголовным);
      • military (Военной коллегии);
      • administrative (коллегии по административным); and
      • appeals (Апелляционная коллегия; formerly the cassation panel or Кассационная коллегия), which can review decisions of the other chambers.
  • Regional Courts
    • Courts of the regional level
  • District Courts
    • Are often the courts of first instance, i.e. these District Courts are often the first courts that hears a case
    • However, district courts may hear appeals from magistrate courts
    • Found in urban areas
  • Magistrate Courts
    • Deals with cases of low importance
      • Criminal imprisonment of less than 3 years
      • Serious traffic violations of “non-violent nature”
      • Simple divorces, property cases, land disputes

The Constitutional Court of Russia is considered an independent court, and was not considered in the list above. Arbitration courts, courts that deal with contractual matters, are also excluded from the list, as they do not have the power to imprison.